The Songs Of The Islamic State – A Major Tool For Reinforcing Its Narrative, Spreading Its Message, Recruiting Supporters
Alongside its military successes, the Islamic State (ISIS) has made considerable achievements in the media and propaganda domain. Its members and supporters utilize social media and online forums to further their various goals, such as recruiting fighters and funds, spreading the organization’s message and waging psychological warfare.
As part of this media campaign, ISIS’s media bodies disseminate videos on a daily basis documenting the organization’s battles, conquests and executions and threatening its enemies, alongside videos that show everyday life under the Caliphate and the enforcement of shari’a law, and even nature films displaying the beauty of the Islamic State, all of which aim to emphasize that life under ISIS rule is normal, peaceful and pleasant.
No less important than the films’ content is their soundtrack, usually comprising of songs, or nasheeds (religious hymns).These are produced by Al-Ajnad, ISIS’s media company specializing in audio productions. The songs, along with the visuals, banners, slogans, emblems and other elements employed by ISIS supporters, from a comprehensive subculture that illustrates and amplifies ISIS’s narrative, namely the immediate establishment of an Islamic Caliphate while vanquishing all enemies who stand in its way.
The nasheeds, or official ISIS hymns, accompany all the organization’s videos and are also released on their own. Their lyrics, often no less graphic than the visual content of the films, glorify the organization’s fighters and present them as models for emulation; urge Muslims to join the jihad and seek martyrdom; depict the Islamic State as an existing reality and its leader, Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi, as the legitimate leader of all Muslims; threaten ISIS’s enemies both in the Muslim world and the West; encourage the Muslims and promise them a bright and glorious future; praise Islam as the ideal religion, and celebrate ISIS’s enforcement of shari’a law in Muslim lands after generations of what the organization calls “secular” and” tyrannical” rule. The lyrics are often written in first person (“I” or “we”), thus enhancing the sense of identification with the organization.
The Salafi stream of Islam strictly observes the prohibition on instrumental music, and vocal music is therefore the only form of musical expression available to its adherents.Nasheeds are sung in Arabic, without instrumental accompaniment, by a polyphonic chorus of male voices. Some of them seem to be produced electronically, by duplicating vocal tracks to create the effect of many voices singing in harmony; in addition, they are often embellished with sound effects of gunfire, clashing swords and the like. Along with the video, which supplies the visual component, they convey a message that is readily accessible even to non-speakers of Arabic; moreover, many of the songs are available with subtitles in the main European languages.
The inclusion of the songs in ISIS videos has made them highly popular among ISIS supporters. The catchy tunes, along with the vivid and often violent lyrics, produce rousing songs that stir the emotionsand form an important component of the organization’s indoctrination machine. Thanks to the videos, each new song is quickly disseminated across the world, and many have become anthems and “identifying badges” of sorts for the group’s activists.
This report reviews the main characteristics of ISIS songs, and then presents a sampling of individual songs, with lyrics and a brief explanation about each.
ISIS Songs – Characteristics
ISIS’s songs belong to a genre of traditional poetry called zajal, whose most prominent formal characteristic is rhyming. Zajal poems display various rhyme schemes. Some are written in monorhyme (each line ends in an identical thyme), as in the case of ISIS’s song “Al-Maliki Is Vanquished” (see below), whose main part consists of 60 short lines all ending with the syllable –ha (a possessive pronoun meaning “her” or “its”). Conversely, other zajal poems have changing rhymes, as in the case of the poem “My Nation, Dawn Has Arrived” (see below). This strophic poem has of four stanzas, all of them beginning with the phrase “my nation.” Each stanza consists of five rhyming lines, but the rhyme changes from stanza to stanza.
The authors of ISIS’s songs are evidently familiar also with Classical Arabic poetry, especially poems of war. Some of ISIS’s songs employ classical meters like ramal, as in the poem “My Nation” below, andmutaqarib, as in the poem “Soon, Soon” below. The latter poem, consisting of an opening couplet followed by 12 lines in monorhyme, is strictly Classical in form, apart from small deviations from Classical grammar.
ISIS’s songs are written in Classical Arabic, but the pronunciation is colloquial, reflecting the dialect of the lead singer.
ISIS’s Audio Production Company, The Al-Ajnad Foundation
In the past, jihadi organizations incorporated songs by famous Arab nasheed singers in their videos (such as Abu ‘Ali and Abu Fares), but in recent years, they have begun employing singers and production companies that are part of the groups themselves. ISIS songs are produced by the Al-Ajnad Foundation, one of the organization’s media production companies, which specializes in producing and publishing audio materials such as nasheeds and Koran recitation clips.Al-Ajnad is an official media organ of ISIS, and is equal in status to other companies such as Al-I’tisam and Al-Furqan, which are responsible for video production. Al-Ajnad publications are typically uploaded to sites such as YouTube and Internet Archive, and unlike ISIS videos, which are removed from sharing sites due to their graphic content, Al-Ajnad audio content tends to remain on the sites. After the initial upload, the content is distributed by pro-ISIS message boards such as Shumoukh Al-Islam (shamikh1.info) and the Jihadi Platform Media (mnbr.com), as well as by ISIS supporters on social networks. While the identities of the writers and performers of the songs have thus far been kept secret, it seems that the centralized distribution via Al-Ajnad has raised the level of writing and general quality, as well as unifying the messages and tailoring them to ISIS’s purposes.
Content-wise, most Al-Ajnad songs praise ISIS and its fighters, supporters, and commanders. A handful of songs praise ISIS leader Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi by name, such as the song “Whoever Curses Al-Baghdadi Will Turn Mute.” Another popular song praising Al-Baghdadi, albeit one not produced by Al-Ajnad, is “O Al-Baghdadi, Who Terrorizes Enemies.” ISIS songs also receive cover versions in different languages, such as by German Rapper Denis Cuspert aka Deso Dogg, who uses the nom de guerre Abu Talha Al-Almani and is associated with ISIS. Abu Talha used the melody of the famous ISIS nasheed “Soon, Soon” (“Qariban Qariba” – see below) in his German-language song “Fisabilillah.”
For the most part, official ISIS videos are accompanied by one or more ISIS songs. Videos showing peaceful life in ISIS-controlled territory will often be accompanied by quiet music and lyrics praising Islam and the Islamic shari’a, while videos depicting battles will be accompanied by more rhythmic songs and lyrics describing ISIS fighters as lions eager to fight.
Use Of Sound Effects To Amplify Messages
The polyphonic harmonies of the all-male vocalists, who sing in an a capella style, make up for the lack of instrumental backing. Most songs feature a lead vocalist with backing vocalists enhancing verses and choruses with harmonies. Songs are often accompanied by sound effects such as gunfire, marching feet, wind, galloping horses, rattling swords, etc., in order to create a fuller sound and amplify the message. Thus, for example, the song “The Rattling Of Sabers” uses the sounds of swords to illustrate the act of slaughter, as the lyrics praise the sound of clashing swords. The song’s chorus states:
The rattling of sabers is the nasheed of the proud, and the way of sacrifice is the way of life
And between one battle and the next, the tyrants are destroyed, how lovely is the echo of the silencer.
Using Lyrics To Amplify Messages
The various song lyrics include optimistic terms such as “a new dawn breaks,” “the sunrise,” “the shari’a of Allah is light,” and more; this, alongside lyrics rife with violence and threats to enemies, using terms such as “we defeated,” “we slaughtered,” “we roasted,” “we slit throats,” “we will avenge,” “we will quench our thirst with blood,” “rattle our sabres” and more. The song “We Have Arrived, Arrived as Soldiers for Allah,” published in early 2015, features all main motifs and messages, such as determined soldiers marching for Allah, adherence to Islam, building a promising future, ending humiliation, eliminating tyrants, and swords that terrorize the enemies. The song opens with the lyrics:
We have arrived, arrived, arrived as soldiers for Allah
We have marched, marched, marched out of love for Allah
We adhere to our religion, according to which we live, we construct a lavish edifice that will elevate us
We rid ourselves of the humiliation we have tasted, and put an end to tyrants
We rattle the sabers that we once abandoned
The sword that quenches its thirst [with blood]
Those who are near it will scream from it, and those who are far from it will shriek from it.
Nasheeds Tailored To Certain Arenas
Al-Ajnad occasionally produces songs tailored to certain arenas according to needs and developments. For instance, in March 2015 it published the song “O Son Of Yemen” following the Houthi takeover of the country. The song was meant to motivate Sunni Muslims to fight the Houthis and promote ISIS’s Yemeni affiliate. The song opens:
O son of Yemen, rise and prepare your [explosive] vest
Your people, the men of Allah, will not accept humiliation
America is behind you and the Zoroastrian is in front of you
Rise, explode, and shock the Houthi in Sana’a.
A similar song was written for ISIS’s Sinai affiliate, titled “The Land Of Sinai.”
Nasheeds – A Tool To Recognize Organizational Affiliation
Knowledge of nasheed lyrics and melodies can occasionally be vital in identifying the affiliation or pro-ISIS inclination of individuals or groups. For instance, the affiliation of the perpetrator of the terrorist attack on a synagogue in Denmark in February 2015, Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein, was initially unknown. However, he had posted the ISIS nasheed “Soon, Soon” on his Facebook page prior to carrying out the attack, which indicated his identification with ISIS.
Songs Popular Among ISIS Members, Supporters
The following are several of the main songs that have been popular among ISIS members and supporters in the recent years.
“My Nation, Dawn Has Arrived”
This is the song most strongly identified with the Islamic State, and has become a sort of anthem of the organization. Its harmony builds up gradually, with new vocal layers being added as the song progresses. Its overall message is encouraging and optimistic: The Islamic State is a reality and its ultimate victory is obvious and eminent, though the work is not done and the Islamic nation will need to continue sacrificing its blood. The song is replete with positive terms such as “light,” “dawn” and “glory.” The last part of the song is accompanied by the sound of clashing swords and galloping horses, signifying ISIS’s might and steadfastness in battle. The song accompanies many ISIS videos and has been viewed hundreds of thousands of times on YouTube; there is even a special Facebook page dedicated to it.The following is a translation of its lyrics:
My nation, dawn has arrived, awaitthe clearvictory.
The Islamic State has risen by the blood of the righteous,
The Islamic State has risen by the jihad of the virtuous,
Those who truly sacrificed their lives, with steadfastness and utter faith,
To instate the faith in which the shari’a of the Lord of the Worlds shall prevail.
My nation, take heart, do not despair. Victory is nigh,
The Islamic State has risen, wondrous glory has appeared.
It has risen and it is penning its glory. The era of decline has ended,
With loyal men who do not fear war,
Who have forged an eternal glory that shall not end or fade.
My nation, Allah is our Lord, so give of your blood.
Victory shall not be regained but through the blood of the martyrs,
Those who have gained [martyrdom], asking their Lord to attain the Hall of the Prophets.
They sacrificed their souls to Allah and their bodies for the sake of the religion.
The men of sacrifice and giving, the men of generosity and honor.
My nation, take heart. The sun of steadfastness has risen.
We marched en masse to exalt the ancient glory,
To bring back light, faith and lofty honor,
With men who renounced life but gained eternal life,
While reviving the nation of glories and certain victory.
“O Islamic State, You Have Illuminated The World”
The song begins by personifying the Islamic State, addressing it as an entity that “has illuminated the world.” It goes on to defend the state’s leaders, apparently in response to accusations of excessive extremism in interpreting the shari’a. It calls on the Muslims to support ISIS and remain unified in the face of external challenges: “This is no time for discord, my arena is full of barbed wire and hurdles” (i.e., external enemies). The song accompanies many videos produced by ISIS’s media company, Al-Furqan, especially the series titled “Messages from the War Zone,” including the film “Repentance of PKK Fighters,” released in the summer of 2014, which shows confessions of PKK members and operations against the Iraqi forces. It also accompanies the video “Storm Their Gates,” released in mid-2014, which shows ISIS forces fighting in Hama.The song states:
O Islamic State, you have illuminated the world, your skies rained blessings upon us
When you revived the faith and spread its fragrance, and I enjoyed its perfume and its [refreshing] winds.
They spread the light of the Caliph of [Allah] the Merciful across the land of Iraq, which enjoyed His mercy.
Then the courageous among our warriors smiled and raised the loftiest of banners in Syria,
Following the straight path, while proclaiming that our emirs are beyond all suspicion.
O seekers of truth, support the state that rose upon the [severed] limbs of the best of preachers.
O those who possess a seeing and listening heart, choose your way, O my brother on the front.
This is no time for discord, my arena is full of barbed wire and hurdles.
This song, rife with violence and threats intended to intimidate the enemies, has been popular in the past year. It was released following the establishment of the international coalition to combat ISIS in the summer of 2014.Until then, ISIS had focused on fighting the Arab regimes in Iraq and Syria, but following the establishment of the coalition, ISIS leader Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi and spokesman Abu Muhammad Al-‘Adnani began calling to stage attacks in the West and in the Arab coalition countries as well. The song refers to the coalition explicitly, urging revenge against its member statesand warning the Islamic State’s enemies of the fate that awaits them. Unsurprisingly, it formed the soundtrack to some of ISIS’s most brutal execution videos, such as the ones showing the burning of the Jordanian pilot Mu’adh Al-Kasasbeh, the beheading of Kurdish Peshmerga fighters, and the beheading of Copts on a beach in Libya.ISIS supporters make extensive use of it as well. For example, pro-ISIS activists who hacked a French business website planted this song on it, and a film in which Yemeni children reenacted ISIS’s beheading of the Copts also used the song as a soundtrack.
In the song, ISIS fighters address the coalition, promising to pursue it and to take the fight to the coalition countries: “The battles shall be waged within your home, my sword has been sharpened to destroy you.” It ends with the declaration: “We shall die standing tall, like courageous lions” (the lion metaphor is common in jihadi texts, especially ISIS ones). The lyrics state:
Soon, soon you shall witness wonders, a fearsome struggle you shall see.
The battles shall be waged within your home, my sword has been sharpened to destroy you.
We marched through the night to cut and behead, with the blade of revenge that attacks those who deserve it.
With the spirits of night and the young men of terror, and a grievous explosion to defeat [the enemy].
You launched a war against me, O misguided coalition, so have a taste of the calamity that shall befall you.
You shall spend a long time suffering under my sword, and who shall you face? The young men who cry ‘Allah Akbar.’
When the steeds travel, lift up their heads and storm [the enemy], the spark ignites.
And when the bullet flies and the punishment comes, where shall you find refuge, you worst of creatures?
We shall arrive to slaughter and kill, silently and fearsomely severing the wick [of your lives].
You have failed openly, so taste the taste of defeat. You shall flee in a night of fleeing.
When heresy rages and froths, we shall fill the roads with crimson blood,
With the thrust of the spear and the severing of necks, [killing] the pack of dogs as it marches.
We have arrived, we have arrived, we have marched with determination andattained the summit of summits.
We shall dive into death to unite the ranks, and die standing tall, like courageous lions.
“Al-Maliki Is Vanquished”
This lengthy song was written following ISIS’s victories in Iraq in 2014, during which it captured large parts of Al-Anbar as well as major cities like Mosul. The text focuses on the defeat of former Iraqi prime minister Nouri Al-Maliki and his army, and on the world’s amazement at ISIS’s successes, especially the amazement of the U.S. and its president, who is referred to as kalb al-roum (in jihadi rhetoric, the wordroum – Rome – often refers to the Byzantine empire and/or to the Christian West).
The song lists cities captured by ISIS in Iraq and promises that its forces will also reach Baghdad and the Shi’ite cities in the south, Najaf and Karbala. It contains a motif that repeats in many ISIS songs, namely the end of the age of Muslim defeat and humiliation: “Praise Allah, I have triumphed, I am no longer afraid and humiliated after today.” Released in the summer of 2014, the song soon became very popular, as reflected, for example, in a video that shows a group of ISIS fighters hiking in the hills and boating on a river while singing this song.Its lyrics are:
Today the world is stuck with astonishment, including America and Obama, the dog of the Romans.
And Al-Maliki is vanquished.
O son of Al-Ramadi, rise up against them, against the Rawafid [Shi’ites], and defend the oppressed.
And Al-Maliki is vanquished.
Praise Allah, I have triumphed, I am no longer afraid and humiliated after today.
And Al-Maliki is vanquished.
We took the beloved Al-Fallujah
And crossed Zuba’ and Abu Ghraib.
We gained all of Al-Ramadi
And took Samarra and Al-‘Awja.
We liberated Tikrit and Al-Dour
And stormed Baiji and Kirkuk.
We vanquished Rawa and ‘Ana
And in our [city] Al-Qaim we enforced the law of the shari’a.
We lifted up Haditha and Al-Karama
And roasted the Sahwat [anti-ISIS tribal forces] that were in them.
We entered Mosul with military convoys
And defeated the Safavids [Shi’ites] there.
We shattered the walls of Badush [prison in Mosul]
And freed most of the prisoners.
We terrorized Irbil with the sword
And trampled Zumar and Sinjar.
We defeated Diyala in war
And stormed all the military bases [there].
We captured the Rawafid [Shi’ite] soldiers [of the Iraqi army]
And slaughtered the Feylis [Shi’ite Kurds] among them.
We reached as far as [the neighborhood of] Harun in Baghdad
And settled in northern Baghdad, the city of[Abbasid Caliph] Harun Al-Rashid.
Today we conquered our Iraq
And defended it with virtue and blessing.
We threatened filthy Najaf
And reached it with [explosive] belts.
We hit most of the targets
And today we put Karbala in our sights.
We sold our soul to Allah
And marched on the road to martyrdom.
We spread Allah’s shari’a
And did not forget Al-Basra.
We burned Hay Al-Bakr
And buried the Sahwat there.
We watered Jurf Al-Sakhar with blood
And raised up the flags of Islam.
We broke America in two
And crushed the European dogs.
We fed them gall in Iraq
And filled buckets upon buckets [with gall].
We chopped off the heads of the Sahwat
And slaughtered the Abu Risha [tribe] and Iran.
We booby-trapped pickup trucks and [car] chassis
And exploded them over the tombs [of Shi’ite imams].
We took back the good Tel Afar
And blew up the PKK Kurds.
We planted the strongest explosives
And crushed the skulls of the infidels.
We shattered the Sykes-Picot [borders]
And instated the shari’a within them.
We captured the most valuable booty
And seized all of the ammunition.
We flew the [enemies’] planes
And drove the hummers.
We yearned for the Islamic State
And felt it [emerge] in practice.
How wonderful and mighty
Are the blows Allah deals to the infidels.
And today we declared the Caliphate
Restoring it in spite of the tyrants.
Congratulations, O prisoner, Al-Maliki is vanquished.
“Ours Are The Sharp Swords”
Like “Soon, Soon,” this song too is graphic and threatening, and accompanies many of ISIS’s execution videos. Highly popular among the organization’s supporters, it even has several cover versions, including a remix by “DJ Marco Al-‘Ayoubi.” It expresses ISIS’s determination to behead the “infidels” (“We cast off their heads with the blade of our sword”), and contrasts ISIS fighters, who are again compared to lions, with the “foolish and slothful” who do not lift a finger to help the war effort: “So awaken to the eternal life, come, my brother, leave the path of the slothful and foolish… We shall die honorably, standing tall, for there is no benefit in a life of slavery.” The song’s lyrics say:
Ours is the cry of truth [Allah Akbar] when the fighting [sides] collide.
We, the proud savage lions,
Carry the steel [swords] with firm determination.
And when war comes, with the music of bullets,
We take the infidels by storm, yearning for revenge.
They are led to perdition, they find no refuge,
We water the soil with the blood of their veins,
And cast off their heads with the blade of our sword.
We heal the souls [of the Muslims] by striking the enemies,
So give the enemy tidings of the evil day [that awaits him].
Ancient glory shall shine across the world.
The jabs of the spearhead are the music of the men.
And in war, honor casts a wide shadow.
So awaken to eternal life, come, my brother,
Leave the path of the slothful and foolish.
When the fire springs up, we are the flame,
Burning the rabble with our sword,
Lifting the dark night from the earth,
And a new dawn breaks over the world.
Our swords chop the enemy to pieces,
And our actions are clear to all of mankind.
We shall continue on this path to the death,
Proclaiming our Lord the one and only [God], and with a wise sword.
So sons of the nation, rise up with striking swords.
Life is nothing unless lived in the shadow of death.
We shall die honorably, standing tall,
For there is no benefit in a life of slavery.
“The Shari’a Of Our Lord Is Light”
A nasheed celebrating ISIS’s success in enforcing the Islamic shari’a. Is presents shari’a rule as the ideal form of government that ensures peace, security, justice and prosperity, and depicts ISIS’s rule as wise and benevolent. The song accompanies videos that showcase life in various cities and provinces controlled by the organization, such as a film showing life in the city of Mosul, Iraq, following its takeover by ISIS,and another showing ISIS providing road maintenance and street cleaning services in the Syrian town of Al-Bab.The song’s lyrics are:
The shari’a of our Lord is light, which shall carry us beyond the stars.With its help we shall live without humiliation, a life of security and peace.Our state is founded upon the Islamic model,And while waging jihad against the enemies, it [also] governs the people [well].How well it cares for its flock, with benevolence and wisdom.It does so meticulously, and so avoids criticism.The shari’a of our Lord is light, which shall carry us beyond the stars.When tyranny looms, you shall see how [the Islamic State] firmly fights it.You shall see how sensitively it handles the people, educates them,[And] generously ensures their livelihood, so that they have no cause for complaint.If one of them should want for anything, you shall see how it cares for him.The shari’a of our Lord is light, which shall carry us beyond the stars.The thirsty land of need, which long has been yearning for rain clouds,Yearning for the people to live in justice, far from the harm of discrimination,Yearning for security to envelop their lives and bestow upon them the wings of peace,Far from the shadow of the infidels and the fear of crime,Yearning for a life of plenty, the life of which people have been dreaming,The life envisioned by the glory of Islam, how beautifulthat vision!The life our [Islamic] State has realized, and it is not a mirage.How [Allah] has purified the religion and exalted the [virtuous] rule.“Brigades Of My State, Hurry And Arrive”
A short song intended to motivate ISIS’s fighters, exhortingthem in graphic terms to crush the tyrants and punish the enemy soldiers (“capture a soldier, expunge his life,and no, have no mercy upon the filthy [wretch], twist his tongue”). The songalso declares that the “horsemen” of the Islamic State will reach the walls of Damascus, and reiterates the promise to end the era of Muslim degradation: “This is the new page of the brave, which will end our humiliation.” It accompanies many ISIS videos, such as a March 2015 film documenting a series of attacks on the Houthis and the Yemeni army, and another documenting ISIS battles in Tikrit in early 2015.
Brigades of my state, hurry and arrive, restore our glory, revive it.
Restore the crown of our nation, place it on its head.
Destroy all the tyrants, light your fire and roast them.
Hurry and capture a soldier, expunge his life,
And no, have no mercy upon the filthy [wretch], twist his tongue.
Night will fall and intoxicate him, his day will fill with errors.
The men of the [Islamic] State were and will continue to be our shield.
We swear by our souls that our horsemen will be the first to arrive in worthy Baghdad and revive it.
We swear by our souls that our heroes will reach the walls of Damascus and revive it.
For this is the new page of the brave, which will end our humiliation.
M. Shemesh is a research fellow at MEMRI.
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 Like other Salafi and jihadi organizations, ISIS enforces the ban on instrumental music in the areas under its control. The religious police – Diwan Al-Hisbah – even seizes musical instruments and burns them. For example, in February 2015 ISIS circulated photos of instruments being burned in Barqa province in Libya. See MEMRI JTTM report, “ISIS Religious Police In Libya Burns Cigarettes, Musical Instruments,” February 18, 2015. More images of such activities (see below) were circulated in April 2015. Shamikh1.info, April 9, 2015.
 Such as the following video of Koran 67: Ia801508.us.archive.org/33/items/67SuratAlMulk/67_Surat_Al_Mulk.mp3.
 Youtube.com/watch?v=SkFxkRDmaQk. See also MEMRI JTTM report: “New ISIS Nasheed In German By Rapper Deso Dogg: ‘Enemies of Allah, We Want Your Blood, It Tastes So Wonderful,”‘ April 15, 2015.
 Youtube.com/watch?v=gH-S2cQ-tTo. It should be noted that this song has become extremely popular throughout the Islamic world, and the Arabic Music Festival in Doha even chose it as the most popular song of 2014, to the consternation of ISIS, which does not recognize such events. Lerpesse.com, February 25, 2015.
 Mnbr.info, February, 2015, Justpaste.it/jjtt, no date.
Al-masdar.net, January 1, 2015.
 See for example Al-‘Adnani’s statements quoted in MEMRI’s JTTM report, “ISIS Spokesman Reaffirms The Group’s Victory, Says ‘We Want… Paris Before Rome… After [We] Blow Up Your White House, Big Ben, And Eiffel Tower,'” March 12, 2015.
 Archive.org/details/wa yashfi_sudor.
 See MEMRI JTTM report, “Several Websites Hacked And Defaced By ‘ISIS Cyber Army,'” March 30, 2015.