South Asia’s Shi’ites Could Face Serious Danger

By: Tufail Ahmad* | MEMRI

The following report is a complimentary offering from MEMRI’s Jihad and Terrorism Threat Monitor (JTTM). For JTTM subscription information, click here.


On May 13, Sunni jihadis intercepted a bus carrying Ismaili Muslims in the Safoora Goth area of the Pakistani city of Karachi and massacred 45 of them, including women.[1] According to media reports, about six terrorists fired indiscriminately on the Ismaili passengers – who belonged to a sect of Shia Islam and were headed to a religious congregation – and then managed to escape.[2] The manner of their killing is very much familiar to Pakistani people, as Sunni jihadists in Pakistan have routinely intercepted buses carrying Shia pilgrims, pulling out passengers and identifying their faith from their surnames from the Pakistani government-issued identity cards before shooting them dead. The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI) has documented systematic jihadist attacks on Shia Muslims and other minorities in Pakistan, noting also calls being made for Pakistan to be put on genocide watch.[3]

While in the past members of the leading Sunni jihad group now known as Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat (ASWJ) – formerly known under different names such as Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP), Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ) and Millat-e-Islamia Pakistan – have carried out ideologically-inspired systematic attacks against Shi’ite Muslims in Pakistan, it appears that the May 13 massacre of Ismaili Muslims was either wholly or in part the work of the Islamic State (ISIS), which in January 2015 announced the establishment of “Wilayat Khurasan,” its “province” in the India, Pakistan and Afghanistan region. Immediately after the attack, ISIS-affiliated accounts on Twitter released a statement in which the organization claimed responsibility for the massacre. The statement noted: “With Allah’s grace, 43 apostates have been killed and nearly 30 have been injured in an attack [carried out by] the soldiers of the Islamic State [who targeted] a bus carrying Ismaili Shi’ite polytheists, maligners of the wife of Prophet Muhammad, in the city of Karachi in Khurasan province.”[4] The attack was also claimed by “Jundallah,” a name used by several terror groups in Pakistan but also by ASWJ factions.[5]

Although senior Pakistani leaders and some clerics condemned the Karachi attack against the Ismaili Muslims, Barelvi clerics in India and Pakistan will not openly declare that Shi’ites are Muslims according to the Islamic Sharia. The most glaring example of this is of Pakistani-Canadian Barelvi cleric Tahirul Qadri, who condemned the May 13 attack, but who previously declared Shi’ites to be infidels, much like ISIS, saying: “One who does not consider a Shi’ite an infidel is himself an infidel.”[6]

The perpetrators of the May 13 massacre in Karachi left two ISIS flyers at the scene, one in Urdu and another in English, justifying the attack and threatening the “Rawafid” (Shi’ites) in Pakistan. The Urdu flier, titled “The Establishment of the Islamic State, a Message of Death for the Rawafidh!”[7]  begins with the  warning: “Know! The mujahideen of the Islamic State–Wilayat Khurasan and the jaanisar sipahis [life-sacrificing warriors] of the Caliph of the Muslims [ISIS chief Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi] have entered the battlefield to enforce the Sharia and exact revenge.”[8] The flyer explains that the attack was revenge for Shi’ite attacks on Sunni Muslims in Syria, Iraq and Yemen, and warns that the mujahideen “will not sit still until the earth is cleansed of Rawafid and Shari’a is enforced.”[9]

Flyer left at the scene of the May 13 massacre in Karachi

Flyer left at the scene of the May 13 massacre in Karachi

Pakistani Militants Offered Bai’yah (Fealty) To ISIS Leader Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi; “Many Militants From Lashkar-e-Jhangvi’s Baluchistan And Punjab Factions Constitute The Best Fighting Force Of ISIS”

Speaking within hours of the attack, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif condemned the massacre of peaceful Ismaili Muslims but blamed it on external “enemies” enraged by Pakistan’s economic prosperity, stating: “Karachi is the trade hub of Pakistan. An incident happening here has great significance. [We] will not let the lights of Karachi go out. The enemies do not like our economic progress. The Safoora tragedy could be part of an international conspiracy against economic development.”[10]

Although Pakistan may blame external forces for this attack, over the past year there have been signs that ISIS has been gaining a foothold in Pakistan. In fact, the claims of responsibility for the attack by ISIS and the ASWJ-associated Jundallah may not be contradictory, as one may have planned the attack, while local factions may have joined hands to carry it out. It will take time to establish the identity of the perpetrators, but it is clear that the ASWJ-affiliated terrorists began travelling to Syria several years ago to work with ISIS.

In July 2014, soon after Al-Baghdadi’s June 29 announcement of the caliphate, the Karachi-based jihadist group Tehreek-e-Khilafat Wa Jihad (TJK, or the Movement for Caliphate and Jihad) offered its bai’yah (oath of fealty) to the ISIS chief, stating: “From today [July 9], the Caliph of the Muslims, Sheikh Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi, may Allah protect him, [should] consider us in Pakistan as one of the arrows in his bow. We pray that he may allow us to see the day when the borders of the Islamic caliphate expand and reach the Pakistan-India Subcontinent and Khurasan [the Afghanistan-Pakistan region].”

However, even before TJK’s bai’yah, Pakistani militants in the Syria-Iraq region swore loyalty to Al-Baghdadi. In a June 19, 2014 video, a group of Pakistanis identified themselves as members of Ansar Al-Dawla Al-Islamiyya fi Pakistan (Supporters of the Islamic State in Pakistan). They announced that a Pakistani militant had been killed on December 2013, and that a training camp, the Shaheed Shiraz Tariq Abu Musa Al-Pakistani Camp, had been named after him. A second video, from June 2014, showed a masked man, identified as Habibullah Habib, claiming to be a member of Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) in Syria. [11]

Analysing the inter-connections between ISIS and various Pakistani jihad organizations, Senior Pakistani security analyst and author Mohammad Amir Rana observed: “As Pakistani militants and religious organizations do not operate in isolation, it is natural for them to draw inspiration from ISIS. Indeed, the ideological association and operational linkage between the Pakistani militants and ISIS are not at all new. Pakistani militants were part of the group from its inception. Many militants from [the anti-Shi’ite jihad group] Lashkar-e-Jhangvi’s [LeJ, also known as ASWJ] Baluchistan and Punjab factions constitute the best fighting force of ISIS. It was LeJ militants who set up the Ghazi Abdul Rasheed training camp in the Iraqi city of Arbil in 2013. The militants trained in the camp constituted the Ghazi Force [a jihadi group based in Pakistan].”[12]

2 Karachi-based Tahreek-e-Khilafat Wa Jihad

Karachi-based Tahreek-e-Khilafat Wa Jihad (TKJ) was the first group  outside the Middle East to offer bai’yah to ISIS emir Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi

“The Network Sending The Pakistani Sunni Fighters To Syria Is Run Jointly By The TTP And ASWJ/LeJ”

Most of the Pakistani jihadists going to Syria and Iraq come from three main groups: ASWJ;  Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and its associated factions; and the Red Mosque of Islamabad, a radical mosque that counted Pakistani military officers among its followers, both before and after the Pakistani authorities ordered a military operation against it in 2007.  

In August 2014, Maulana Abdul Aziz of the Red Mosque was one of the key jihadi leaders from Pakistan who expressed support for ISIS leader Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi, stating in a video interview: “See, we ourselves want a caliphate and we want the caliphate to be established in the entire world, including in Pakistan. The caliphate is the solution to problems. So, if these Arab mujahideen have brought about the establishment of the caliphate, we view it as good tidings for the Muslim Ummah…”[13]

In July 2014, a Pakistani newspaper examined the affiliation of Pakistanis who went to join  ISIS in Syria. It reported: “Media reports about Pakistani mercenaries who joined ISIS in fighting the Assad regime [in Syria] first appeared last year [in 2013], as Syria became the new center of global jihad. It was an anti-Shi’ite ideology that drove the TTP to join the Syrian conflict. In a more recent development, an Iraq-based jihadi organization – Ansarul Islam – released a video showing training activity in a jihadi camp dedicated to the memory of Maulana Abdul Rasheed Ghazi, one of the two cleric brothers who took center stage during the Red Mosque standoff in July 2007 in Islamabad. Ghazi was killed in the military operation and now lives in the jihadi hall of fame.

“The Red Mosque’s link with global jihad is evident from the fact that [slain Al-Qaeda leader] bin Laden is quoted in the video praising [Abdul Rasheed] Ghazi as a hero. Thus, Ghazi keeps inspiring the followers of his cause not only in Pakistan but also in Iraq, where the holy warriors of Ansarul Islam have named not only a jihadi training camp after him but also a subdivision of their group. The network sending the Pakistani Sunni fighters to Syria is run jointly by the TTP and LeJ…”[14]

It should be noted that the Punjab local government, led by Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif, brother of Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, has a long-standing relationship with ASWJ/LeJ and has been criticized for supporting Punjab-based jihadists.[15]

Refugee Camps In Pakistan In 2014; Terrorist Groups Supported By Pakistani Military,  Jaish-e-Muhammad And Jamaatud Dawa, Sought Donations For Jihad In Syria; Poster Of Eiffel Tower With ‘Eurabia’ Written Across It In English Includes Appeal To Contribute To The Jihad In Syria

In mid-2014, Pakistani newspapers carried reports that revealed that charities associated with Jaish-e-Muhammad (JeM) and Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) – which is also known as Jamaatud Dawa (JUD) and Falah-i-Insaniat Foundation (FIF) – were collecting donations for the jihad in Syria from the camps established in Bannu for internally displaced persons (IDPs). Both JeM and LeT/JuD are alleged to be enjoying the support of the Pakistani military’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). Pakistani journalist Taha Siddiqui wrote in July 2014:

“[JuD/FIF], the group once also known as the Lashkar-e-Taiba, continues to enjoy state patronage. ‘The Pakistan Army is really cooperative towards us,’ says Mohammad Sarfaraz, the chief organizer of the JuD camp [for refugees in Bannu]. ‘We were the first to set up a greeting camp to receive the IDPs even though that area was in the red zone [i.e. meant for strictly military access]. This is the time to win the hearts and minds of these refugees, whom the government is failing… Many of them have promised to work for us – and that too for life,’ he proudly adds.”[16]

Siddiqui added: “And it is not just JuD that is free to operate in this region. Just half a kilometer before the sports complex, a large banner in blood-red bears the name of [JeM emir] Masood Azhar, and calls him the Emir-ul-Mujahideen [Leader of the Mujahideen]. The camp, which provides water and medical facilities, also has a queue of people waiting to see the doctor…. At first this camp’s organizers are reluctant to speak to me. ‘We don’t talk to the media because you publish anti-Shariah stories,’ says one of them, identifying himself as Maqsood. But upon my insistence he opens up and even tells me that his organization is involved in jihad in Kashmir and Afghanistan. ‘We are the soldiers of Allah and we are here to help our Muslim brothers,’ he says. Behind him, a poster shows the Eiffel Tower with ‘Eurabia’ written across it in English, below which there is an appeal to contribute to the jihad in Syria.”[17]

3 Baluchistan government report warning about ISISBaluchistan government report warning about ISIS

Pakistani Provincial Government Report: ISIS Could Have Recruited “10,000-12,000 Followers From The Hangu And Kurram Agency Tribal Areas” – And “Plans To Target Members Of The Minority Shia Community”

In October 2014, a confidential report sent to senior officials by the government of Pakistan’s Baluchistan province warned that nearly 12,000 Pakistani militants had joined ISIS. Earlier, in April 2014, a Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) shura member noted that 8,000 jihadis from Pakistan, mostly Arabs, Chechens and Uzbeks, had moved to Syria.[18] About the Baluchistan government report, Pakistani newspaper noted:

“The provincial government of Baluchistan has transferred a confidential report to the federal government and law-enforcement agencies that warns of an increase in the footprints of the militant organization Islamic State (ISIS)… in Pakistan. The ‘secret information report’… dated October 31, states that ISIS has claimed to have recruited a massive 10,000-12,000 followers from the Hangu and Kurram Agency tribal areas.

“‘It has been reliably learned that Daish [i.e. ISIS] has invited some elements of Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LeJ) and Ahl-e-Sunnat Wal Jamaat (ASWJ) to join hands in Pakistan. Daish has also formed a 10-member Strategic Planning Wing,’ the report from the Home and Tribal Affair Department of Baluchistan says. The report states that ISIS plans to attack military installations and government buildings in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in retaliation for the army-led Zarb-e-Azb operation [against the Taliban] in North Waziristan, and also plans to target members of the minority Shia community.

“The Baluchistan government called for heightened vigilance and security measures in the province as well as the northwestern province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to prevent and pre-empt such attacks. It has moreover called for sensitizing law-enforcement agencies on the issue and an increased monitoring of LeJ members.”[19]

Pakistani Taliban Commander Justifies ISIS Savagery And Beheadings; In Article Titled “Our Right To Spread Terror,” States: “One Of The Titles Of The Prophet Was Nabi Al-Malahim – Meaning Prophet Of Fierce Battles/Bloodshed”

4 Omar Khalid Khorasani emir of TTP Jamaatul Ahrar
Omar Khalid Khorasani, emir of TTP Jamaatul Ahrar

In October 2014, six leading commanders from the TTP and their followers joined ISIS; among them was then-TTP spokesman Shahidullah Shahid. According to a media report, “Shahidullah said that he, along with TTP emir for Orakzai Agency Saeed Khan, TTP’s Kurram Agency chapter chief Daulat Khan, Fateh Gul Zaman, who heads TTP in Khyber Agency, TTP’s Peshawar emir Mufti Hassan, and TTP’s Hangu chief Khalid Mansoor was announcing his allegiance to [ISIS caliph] Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi Al-Qureshi Al-Hussaini.”[20]

This declaration of allegiance to Al-Baghdadi was preceded by an expression of support for Al-Baghdadi by Omar Khalid Khorasani, emir of the TTP Jamaatul Ahrar. Khorasani has gone so far as to offer to mediate between ISIS and the ALQ affiliate in Syria Jabhat Al-Nusra (JM) to bring them together on a single platform. Most security analysts hasten to see these developments as splits in loyalties or organizational connections, but this is not actually the case. In Pakistan, militants from one organization move to another organization, sometimes also setting up their own terror units by aligning under an influential commander.

For ideological purposes, there is never a distinction between these groups, who also cooperate at operational levels on specific tasks. Omar Khalid Khorasani left the TTP over a leadership issue but has since returned to work with the TTP emir Maulana Fazlullah. Importantly, what could be a bigger threat to Pakistan is that Omar Khalid Khorasani has justified the ISIS-like butchery and massacres of infidels and Shias, basing this justification on the teachings of the Koran and practices of the Prophet Muhammad and his Companions.

“Our Right To Spread Terror” – Article

In an article titled “Our Right To Spread Terror,” Omar Khalid Khorasani stated:[21] “If we analyze the events in the world today, we see the Kuffar [infidels] blatantly using the element of fear in their campaign against the Muslims. Much of the Kuffar’s world order stands upon the foundation of terrorism that was created during world wars by using nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. In the post-world wars era, the Kuffar never stopped terrorizing the population of the world, and they and their proxies have killed millions of people in places like Korea, Vietnam, East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), Kashmir, Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria and Palestine. In 2003, the Kuffar even named their initial bombing campaign in Iraq ‘Shock and Awe,’ in a hope that Iraqi Muslims would be terrorized into submission. Another method the Kuffar use to terrorize the Muslims is through humiliating and torturing the prisoners in their infamous detention centers such as Bagram, Abu Ghuraib, and Guantanamo Bay, releasing photos and videos of the abuse.

“The Pakistani Army, which is the frontline ally of the Kuffar [infidels], is notoriously famous for the terrorizing and extrajudicial killing of Muslim prisoners. Sometimes the prisoners are executed and their naked bodies are dumped. Sometimes they kill the prisoners by drilling holes in them, and sometimes by cutting them with a saw. Especially when [the] army is about to launch a military operation in an area, they commit such acts of terror as an essential ritual. They filmed the execution of six children before starting the Swat operation, and they also filmed the killing of 257 innocent Muslims on the first day of the launch of military [operations] in Mohmand [district]. Similarly, when the Pakistani Army comes under mujahideen attacks, they start executing and dumping Muslim prisoners in their prisons, with the hope of deterring the mujahideen. These are the examples of terrorism committed by the Pakistani Army….”

“Hence, terrorism is really an important pillar of psychological warfare. The Kuffar blatantly use terrorism to subdue the Muslims; however, when they are made to taste Islamic terrorism, they start to tremble. Then their media outlets start churning up negative propaganda against Islam and Muslims, as if terrorism is employed in warfare only by Muslims. As far as we mujahideen are concerned, we consider it our right to spread terrorism. We see strong evidence in the Koran and the Sunnah [traditions of the Prophet Muhammad] about terrorizing our enemies, and we also see our enemies utilizing terror techniques against us.”

“Our beloved Prophet… was Rahmatullah lil Aalimeen (mercy for all the worlds), but he was also a superb warrior. One of the titles of Prophet was Nabi Al-Malahim, which means ‘Prophet of fierce battles/bloodshed.’ Even in battles such as Uhud and Hunain, when the Companions [of the Prophet] had to retreat due to the ferocity of the enemy’s attack, the Prophet did not take a step back – he kept moving forward. Ali bin Abi Talib used to say that whenever the battle got difficult and tough, we would take refuge behind Muhammad for protection. At the battle of Badr, the Prophet ordered the head of the Kuffar’s wounded leader Abu Jahal brought to him. That gives us clear justification to behead our enemies.”

“600 Adult Jews Were Put To The Sword On The Orders Of The Prophet… The Same Element Of Fear, Terror, And Awe Was Evident… When He Attacked Mecca”

 5 Omar Khalid Khorasanis article justifying ISIS-like butchery in Pakistan

Omar Khalid Khorasani’s article justifying ISIS-like butchery in Pakistan

“Our Prophet was very kind to the believers and general public, but when it came to dealing with the enemies of the Deen [the religion] of Allah, he used to strike fear in the hearts of those Kuffar and hypocrites. This is how the Prophet laid the siege of Jewish tribes Banu Qainuqah and Banu Nudhair after they broke the agreement, and the two tribes surrendered without putting up any resistance despite having arms and fortresses.

“Similarly, a few years later, the Jews of the third tribe, Banu Quraizah, also surrendered without a fight when the Prophet surrounded them, because the Jews had colluded with the enemies of Muslims in the Battle of Trench (Ghazwah Khandaq). The 600 adult Jews were put to the sword on the orders of the Prophet, and they could not raise even a finger in protest. The same element of fear, terror, and awe was evident in the strategy of the Prophet when he attacked Mecca, that was the center of Arabia. The Meccan Kuffar accepted defeat after little resistance, and the city was captured without much fighting.

“After the Prophet, the Sahabah [his Companions] also maintained the tactic of instilling terror into the hearts of enemies. The city of Jerusalem was conquered by the Muslims in the time of Umar bin Al-Khattab [the Second Caliph], and the unbelievers handed over the keys of the city to Emir-ul-Momineen [Leader of the Faithful] without a fight. This was due to the psychological dominance of the Sahabah in the minds of the Kuffar due to their previous victories against the Persian and Byzantine superpowers of that time.”

“[The Islamic commander] Khalid bin Waleed, in order to terrorize the enemy in one battle, ordered that the severed head of a Kafir [infidel] be cooked, and on another occasion he sent a message to the army of the Kuffar that he had come to drink their blood (Al Badaya Wan Nahaya by Ibn Kathir). When it became difficult for the Muslim army to conquer the city of Samarkand, the Sahabah lit a fire in the hot weather to scare the enemy, giving them impression that the Muslims were different and much tougher than other people.

“Nabi Al-Malahim [the Prophet of Fierce Battles/Bloodshed, i.e. Muhammad] told us about striking terror in the hearts of enemies… Allah’s Messenger [Muhammad] said, ‘I have been given five things which were not given to any of the prophets before me. These are:

“1.   Allah made me victorious by fear (by His terrorizing my enemies) from a distance of one month’s journey.

“2.   The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and a thing to perform Tayammum. Therefore my followers can pray wherever the time of a prayer is due.

“3.   The war booty has been made Halal (lawful) for me (and was not made so for anyone else).

“4.   Every prophet used to be sent to his nation exclusively but I have been sent to all mankind.

“5.   I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection).

“[As cited in the authentic book of Hadiths called] Sahih Bukhari

“Above all, our Lord Allah orders us in the Koran: … And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war (tanks, planes, missiles, artillery, etc.) to terrorize the enemy of Allah and your enemy (Koran 8:60).”

“[ISIS’s] Filming Of Bloodshed… Has Been Quite Impressive – And That Is Why The Kuffar Are Becoming Very Frightened Of The Islamic State”; “We Were Terrorists, We Are Terrorists, And We Shall Remain Terrorists, Allah Willing”

“It is clear from the above discussion that the Muslims are commanded by Allah to keep their enemies terrorized. Terrorism is a strategy of war and it is proven from Hadiths of the Prophet and Islamic history. Moreover, we see our enemies like the Americans and their servant the Pakistan Army also using modern ways of terrorism. Sadly, some elements among the mujahideen of Afghanistan and Pakistan have developed apologetic thinking due to the propaganda of the Kuffar, and they are reluctant to film and broadcast even the dead bodies of enemies.

“However, filming of bloodshed by [ISIS] mujahideen of Iraq and Syria has been quite impressive and that is the reason the Kuffar are getting really scared of the Islamic State. It is the command of Allah to treat Kuffar with ‘Ghilzah’ (harshness: reference Koran 9:73, 123). Hence we are warning the Kuffar of the whole world and those Muslims who are impressed by the propaganda of the Kuffar that we shall continue to spread terrorism and havoc until Shariah is implemented and Khilafah [caliphate] is established over the whole world.

“We shall continue to instil fear and terror in the hearts of the Kuffar until we make Deen of Allah dominant everywhere. We are those who are not deterred, impressed or demoralized by the blames of the blamers (Koran 5:54). We were terrorists, we are terrorists and we shall remain terrorist, Allah willing.”

*Tufail Ahmad is Director of MEMRI’s South Asia Studies Project.


© 1998-2015, The Middle East Media Research Institute All Rights Reserved.


[1] Roznama Ummat (Pakistan), May 14, 2015. The names of people and organizations mentioned in this dispatched have been lightly edited and standardized.

[2] Roznama Express (Pakistan), May 14, 2015.

[3] See MEMRI Inquiry & Analysis No. 884, “Calls To Put Pakistan On Genocide Watch Amid Mounting Persecution Of Its Religious Minorities, September 25, 2012.

[4] See MEMRI JTTM report ISIS Claims Responsibility For Karachi Bus Attack, May 13, 2015.

[5] Roznama Jang (Pakistan), May 14, 2015.

[6] See MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis No. 920, The Ideology And Politics Of Pakistani Religious Leader Dr. Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri, January 15, 2013.

[7] See MEMRI JTTM report ISIS Pamphlets Claim Responsibility For May 13 Attack On Ismaili Shi’te Muslims In Karachi, Warn Of Further Attacks Against Shi’ites , May 14, 2015.

[8] See MEMRI JTTM report ISIS Pamphlets Claim Responsibility For May 13 Attack On Ismaili Shi’te Muslims In Karachi, Warn Of Further Attacks Against Shi’ites , May 14, 2015.

[9] See MEMRI JTTM report ISIS Pamphlets Claim Responsibility For May 13 Attack On Ismaili Shi’te Muslims In Karachi, Warn Of Further Attacks Against Shi’ites , May 14, 2015.

[10] Roznama Express (Pakistan), May 14, 2015.

[11] See MEMRI JTTM report Pakistani Jihadi Groups Swear Oath Of Fealty To Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi, The Rise Of Tahreek-e-Khilafat Wa Jihad (TKJ), July 11, 2014.

[12] See MEMRI JTTM report, Pakistani Analyst: ‘Operational Linkage Between The Pakistani Militants And ISIS Are Not At All New’; ‘[Pakistan’s Lashkar-e-Jhangvi] Militants… Set Up The Ghazi Abdul Rasheed Training Camp In The Iraqi City Of Arbil In 2013’, July 14, 2014.

[13] See MEMRI JTTM report In New Video, Radical Pakistani Cleric Maulana Abdul Aziz Endorses Islamic State (IS), Urges Palestinians To Rise For Jihad: ‘Israel Will Not Bend Like This Unless It Is Diagnosed Through Jihad’, August 14, 2014.

[14] See MEMRI JTTM report Pakistani Daily Examines Pakistani Taliban’s Ties With Jihadists In Iraq, Says Al-Qaeda’s Oath Of Fealty To Mullah Omar Re-Establishes Taliban-Al-Qaeda Relationship, July 23, 2014.

[15] MEMRI Special Dispatch No. 3655, Punjab’s Provincial Government Criticized for Its Support to ‘Punjabi Taliban’, March 9, 2011.

[16] See MEMRI JTTM report Pakistani Daily: At Refugee Camps, Terrorist Groups Jaish-e-Muhammad And Lashkar-e-Taiba Seek Donations For Syria Jihad, Recruit Vulnerable Persons, July 11, 2014.

[17] See MEMRI JTTM report Pakistani Daily: At Refugee Camps, Terrorist Groups Jaish-e-Muhammad And Lashkar-e-Taiba Seek Donations For Syria Jihad, Recruit Vulnerable Persons, July 11, 2014.

[18] See MEMRI JTTM report Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan Shura Member: ‘8,000 Mujahideen, Mostly Arabs, Chechens, And Uzbeks, Have Shifted To Syria’, April 25, 2014.

[19] See MEMRI JTTM report Pakistani Provincial Government Report: ISIS Might Have Recruited 10,000-12,000 Members From Pakistan’s Border Region, November 12, 2014.

[20] See MEMRI JTTM report TTP Suffers Setback As Six Leading Commanders, Including Its Spokesman, Declare Oath Of Fealty To Islamic State (IS) Leader Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi, October 15, 2014.

[21] See MEMRI JTTM report In Issue II Of Ihya-e-Khilafat, Pakistani Taliban Commander Justifies ISIS Savagery & Beheadings: ‘One Of The Titles Of The Prophet Was Nabi Al-Malahim, Which Means Prophet Of Fierce Battles Or Bloodshed’, March 2, 2015.